Jinnah's 14 points
Sir Syed's Speach
Hasrat Mohani
Jinnah's 14 points
Allama Iqbal
Now And Never
Letters Of Iqbal
Pirpur's Report
Pakistan Resolution
Cripps Proposals
AIML Legislators
Cabinet Mission
Quaid’s Address
Objective Resolution


Jinnah's Fourteen Points


The Government of India Act 1919 had introduced more reforms including the system of dyarchy in the provinces but to dissatisafaction of the Indians. The new instalment of reforms was expected in ten years but it did not arrive. The Hindu-Muslim discord was the main stumbling block as the Simon Commission (1927) found. The Nehru Report (1928) was an attempt to produce an agreed constitution but instead it annoyed the Muslims further. In 1929, Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah presented his fourteen points in response to the Nehru Committee Report. The Nehru Report not only contained unjust provisions regarding the Indian Muslim but were also in serious contradiction to what had already been agreed upon in the Lucknow Pact, 1916, especially on the issue of separate electorate for the Muslims of India. Jinnah's Fourteen Points are reproduced below:

    1. The form of the future constitution should be federal with the residuary powers vested in the provinces.

    2. A uniform measure of autonomy shall be granted to all provinces.

    3. All legislatures in the country and other elected bodies shall be constituted on the definite principle of adequate and effective representation of minorities in every province without reducing the majority in any province to minority or even equality.

    4. In the Central Legislature, Musalman representation shall not be less than one-third.

    5. Representation of communal groups shall continue to be by means of separate electorates as at present: provided it shall be open to any community, at any time, to abandon its separate electorate in favour of joint electorate.

    6. Any territorial redistribution that might at any time be necessary shall not, in any way, affect the Muslim majority in the Punjab, Bengal and N. W. F. Province.

    7. Full religious liberty, i.e., liberty of belief, worship and observance, propaganda, association and education, shall be guaranteed to all communities.

    8. No bill or resolution or any part thereof shall be passed in any legislature or any other elected body if three-fourths of the members of any community in that particular body oppose such a bill, resolution or part thereof on the ground that it would be injurious to the interest of the community or in the alternative, such other method is devised as may be found feasible and practicable to deal with such cases.

    9. Sind should be separated from the Bombay Presidency.

    10. Reforms should be introduced in the N.W.F.Province and Baluchistan on the same footing as in other Provinces.

    11. Provision should be made in the constitution giving Muslims as adequate share along with the other Indians, in all the services of the State and in local self-governing bodies having due regard to the requirements of efficiency.

    12. The constitution should embody adequate safeguards for the protection of Muslim culture and for the protection and promotion of Muslim education, language, religion, personal laws and Muslim charitable institutions and for their due share in the grants-in-aid given by the State and by the self-governing bodies.

    13. No cabinet, either Central or Provincial, should be formed without there being a proportion of at least one-third Muslim Ministers.

No change shall be made in the constitution by the Central Legislature except with the concurrence of the States constituting the Indian Federation.